Primary batteries

Zinc powders for primary batteries

Starting in 1976, EverZinc launched the development of alloyed zinc powders (ZBM) for alkaline batteries. Within 15 years, they would be Hg-free and a few later all heavy metals would be banned (EverZinc was the first to market “green” powders without Pb and Cd). The first powders were produced using air atomization (AA or “blown zinc”), first in Belgium (Pelt), later in China (Shanghai).

In the early 2000’s, EverZinc resolutely engaged in the production of centrifugal or spinning disk atomization (CA or “spun”  zinc). It still occupies a unique position in the CA world of (Bi, In, Al) alloyed powders, the reference in high performance, long life alkaline batteries. These powders carry a series of inherent advantages (product stability, shape, size, purity) thanks to their advanced technology (maximum control of zinc feed quality, atomization conditions and material interface with the atomization disk).

EverZinc devotes a significant amount of R&D on developing finer, more active powders for performance and shelf life, both in AA and CA technologies, to power the batteries of the future.


Consumer applications to power lights, remotes, toys and other devices, primary batteries mostly come in cylindrical form, about evenly spread between zinc-carbon (low cost, limited life) or alkaline (higher performance, longer life). For miniature applications (from hearing aids to clocks and electronics), “coin” cells were developed, using Zn-Air, Zn-Ag2O and other chemistries. In industrial applications, a market of stand-alone ESS for rail/road/field has developed (mostly Zn-Air). Size-wise, consumer applications represent over 99% of zinc consumed in batteries (zinc foils and sheets for zinc-carbon, zinc powders for alkaline)



Alloyed Zinc Powder (ZBM)

Zinc Oxide


Air Atomization/ Centrifugal atomization

Indirect (French) process


All Hg-, Pb-, Cd-, free. Alloyed with Bi, In, Al.

High purity “Pharma grades“


High purity (Super Special High Grade or “Battery grade“ ) Zn

Special High Grade Zn


Low gassing (long life), high energy, tailored to battery demand profile

Tailored specific surface, high dispersibility


Primary alkaline and Zn-Air batteries for portable (consumer) stationary (industrial) and miniature (button cell) applications

Applicable as anode additive